應物”變”形 ─ 2018蔡尉成雕塑展

Transforming after Object — Tsai Wei Cheng Sculpture Exhibition for 2018

文/ 徐婉禎
Article by Woan-Jen Hsu

「應物”變”形」展,主要展出蔡尉成2018年的雕塑新作作品共有七件:〈千年〉、〈火大〉、〈天光〉、〈風大〉、〈花香〉、〈有種〉、〈捨不得〉。作為東方脈絡下從事創作的藝術家,蔡尉成保有東方藝術體系的創作思維,這次展出作品延續《西遊記》孫悟空七十二變系列而成為其一貫的創意來源,因此這些作品保留有孫悟空造型的識別特徵,即最明顯的頭戴緊箍以及手握如意棒。然而,蔡尉成於本展覽創作中所使用的藝術語言,卻明顯不同於以往而有了方向上極大的轉變。

The 2018 exhibition “Transforming after Object” primarily exhibits a total of 7 new sculptures by Tsai Wei Cheng, including “Millennium”, “Infuriating”, “Daylight”, “Strong Wind”, “Fragrance of A Flower”, “Guts”, and “Couldn’t Give Up”. As an artist who creates with the Orient at heart, Tsai Wei Cheng adheres to the creative thinking of the Oriental art. The new collection continues his established inspiration for “Journey to the West,” the 72 Transformations of Sun Wukong series; Therefore, the collection still keeps the identifiable features of Sun Wukong’s appearance, in particular, the tightening-crown on the head and the golden-banded staff in hand. However, compared to his previous collection, obvious changes have occurred in terms of the art language spoken by the creations of Tsai Wei Cheng for this exhibition.

如果,將蔡尉成2017年威尼斯雙年展「西遊‧嬉遊」系列的作品視為如同新生兒般不帶雜質的純粹,那是在圍繞自我的世界裡享受著微小片刻的美好,雕塑量體光滑的身軀、單一使用的亮麗色彩,去蕪存菁乃至精斂純化,顯得相當渾圓而可愛;那麼,2018年「應物”變”形」展的新作就可視為如同年歲稍長將近三四歲左右的孩童,這個孩童他開始對外在世界感到興趣,開始探索自身所處在的世界,透過作品他為自身的內在與處境的外在建立起相互影響的聯繫,這是蔡尉成對於人之存在不能孤絕於物而交融於物的深刻體認。「應物”變”形」展的新作保留了創作所遺留下來的手做痕跡,不刻意拋光修飾的結果,外敷的顏色配合土材堆塑過程中所造成的凝塊,更加突顯出凹凸與疙瘩,使得作品顯現為一種流動感,像是無垠亙古宇宙中紛飛的流沙,因為特定的因緣、在特定的時空交錯而匯聚成形,這是不可說之神妙瞬間,藝術作品將須臾凝固化作永恆。

The “Divertimento for Journey to the West” collection by Tsai Wei Cheng exhibited in La Biennale di Venezia 2017 were endowed with the essence of purity after stripping off all the impurities attached. The smooth texture of the sculptures and the bright single tint brings out their round loveliness as if they were enjoying the tiny little happiness in a world rotating around themselves. If we take the “Divertimento for Journey to the West” as the newborn purity, then the new collection for 2018 “Transforming after Object” shall be seen as children slightly grown to an age of approximately 3 or 4, who start to become curious about the external world and set foot on the path to explore the world of their existence. Through his work, Tsai Wei Cheng built the connection between the internal self and the external world that mutually affect each other, demonstrating his profound understanding of “the existence of human shall be intertwined with things instead of being isolated.” Skipping the polish procedure for decoration, the new collection for the exhibition “Transforming after Object” keeps the hand-made traces since its creation, together with the pigment covered externally and the clot formed during the piling and shaping procedure of soil materials, which further shows the unevenness and coarse surface, and creates the sense of swiftness. Just like the flowing sands spreading in the infinite universe throughout time, it has gathered and formed its shape at a specific spot for a special cause, exacting a spur of a miracle for artwork to build its shape and last for an eternity.

本展覽標題「應物”變”形」乃源自於「應物象形」,將「象」改為「變」正就是呼應蔡尉成於新作中意欲連結自我內外的企圖。一般咸以為東方之異於西方的審美標準在於東方藝術之對「氣韻生動」的追求。魏晉南北朝是中國最早出現藝術審美理論的時期,歷經東晉‧顧愷之〈論畫〉、南朝‧宗炳〈畫山水序〉等依附於經史之中的散篇,直至南朝齊梁時期始出現較為有系統的藝術理論專述,此即謝赫針對二十七位畫家進行品評而書寫的《古畫品錄》。

《古畫品錄》當中的一篇〈畫品〉便以「六法」詳細書明藝術的標準與審美的要求:

「六法者何?一、氣韻,生動是也;二、骨法,用筆是也;三、應物,象形是也;四、隨類,賦彩是也;五、經營,位置是也;六、傳移,模寫是也。」

(謝赫原文無標點,本文採錢鍾書《管錐編》之斷句方式)

其中謝赫六法之第三「應物,象形是也」,強調了對真實性的重視,此說明藝術作品所描繪之「形」的重要,必須做到作品能對應於所描繪之對象物,那就要如實刻劃出對象物的形態。繼此,我們或可再延伸思維,按東晉‧僧肇「法身無象,應物以形」:佛之法身不固著於特定具體的形象,祂的形象乃是對應於環境事物之不同而有不同的顯現,若以此推論理解「應物,象形是也」,則藝術家乃至其藝術作品都不能僵固於某一特定之形式表現,藝術形式的產生乃是因應於所描繪對象之不同而有所不同。於是,「應物象形」所論及的重點在於藝術作品的表現依附於客觀對象物的形象,至於本展覽「應物”變”形」則更進一步,除了重視客體對象之客觀面向,也不忽略創作者主體自身主觀的成分,或者更確切地說,「應物”變”形」所關注的是人於處境之中,主客體之間相互涉入相互牽連的交融。

The exhibition name “Transforming after Object” originates from “Correspondence to the Object,” replacing the “correspondence” with “transforming”, reflecting the pursuit of connecting internal and external self that Tsai Wei Cheng intended to express through his new collection. The pursuit of “Spirit Resonance” for Oriental art is generally viewed as the different from definitions of art for the West. The earliest art theory in China can be traced back to the time of Wei and Jin Dynasties, single pieces such as Gu Kaizhi’s “Painting Theory” from Eastern Jin Dynasty, and Zhong Bing’s “Preface of Painting Landscape” from the Southern Dynasties, which were included in historical compilations, to the more systematic and specific writings for art theory emerging in Southern Qi Liang Dynasty; that is, “The Record of Ancient Painting Appreciation” written by Xie He focusing on the judging of paintings by 27 chosen painters. The chapter “Painting Appreciation” in “The Record of Ancient Painting Appreciation” uses the “Six Points” to lay out the standards and requirements for art in detail:

“What are the Six Points? First, spirit resonance; second, bone method; third, correspondence to the object; fourth, suitability to type; fifth, division and planning; six, transmission by copying”

(the original piece by Xie He was without punctuation. This article adopted the punctuation used in “Limited Views: Essays on Ideas and Letters” by Qian Zhongshu).

Out of the Six Points by Xie He, the third “Correspondence to the Object” points out the value of accuracy, which explains the importance of “Object” in artwork that it shall correspond to the target object it depicts with a truthful depiction of the shape and form of the target object. Moreover, we may extend the thinking model in accordance with the word of Seng Zhao from Eastern Jin Dynasty, “Dhamarkaya has no form, and it corresponds to the object.” Dhamarkaya of Buddha does not attach to a specific solid form; its form corresponds to the diverse objects in the environment. If we elaborate “Correspondence to the Object” with this speculation, artists and their artworks shall not be too rigid to any specific form of demonstration, as the formation of art shall vary from the target object. As such, the emphasis discussed in“Correspondence to the Object” is that the demonstration of artworks is subject to the subjective form of the target object. As for the exhibition “Transforming after Object,” it further emphasizes the subjective aspect of the target object while simultaneously includes the objective aspect from creator’s own self; more specifically, “Transforming after Object” focuses on the human existence within the environment altogether, and the subject and object are mutually involved, connected and intertwined to each other.

蔡尉成將自己寄身於孫悟空多變的形體,傳達著內外交通的意念,這種主客體互涉的交融狀態表現在藝術作品中,大致可分為兩段機制:
一是「意隨心轉」,另一則是「身隨意變」。
首先,「意隨心轉」乃意識跟隨心念而流轉;內外在的溝通,主客觀的聯繫,外在客觀世界引發內在主觀心念的生滅,起心動念的瞬間,猶如電光火石的剎那,意識已經隨之千迴百轉。然後,「身隨意變」則身形跟隨意識而幻變;意識流轉的同時,不管是喜形於色還是相由心生,面相身形姿態都不自覺地潛移默化。先從外而內,再從內而外,客觀對象世界牽動起主觀內在心念意識而後彰顯幻化為外在形體。

Tsai Wei Cheng imagined himself transformed into multiple forms of Sun Wukong, conveying the connection between the inner and outer self. The involvement and blending in between subject and object were mainly displayed in the artwork through 2 stages:
one is “Thoughts Follow Heart,” while the other is “Forms Follow Thoughts.”
First“Thoughts Follow Heart” means that thoughts may change according to where the heart goes. The communication between the inner and outer self, the connection between subject and object and the external objective environment that triggers the ups and downs of the internal subjective heart; the thoughts may have changed thousands of times in a flash once the thought is changed. Then, “Forms Follow Thoughts” means that the form transforms according to thoughts. While thought changes, whether in the event of the expression being lit up with delight or outward appearance springs from our heart, the expression, figure and posture may vary under an imperceptible influence. Taking influences from outside-in and making differences from inside-out, the objective world triggers the subjective heart thus springing out the effect through transforming the form and appearances.

「應物”變”形」展的新作為我們顯示了:〈天光〉灑落、聞得〈花香〉,因而愉悅,因而綻放如花溫暖的笑顏。受到〈風大〉的衝擊、無可理喻人事〈火大〉的折磨,因而堅強,因而隨順坦然。最後,捨得〈捨不得〉的分寸拿捏,都在已然鍛鍊為〈有種〉的大勇氣面前能夠隨心所欲而優游自在。

The new collection in the exhibition“Transforming after Object” shows: The sense of delight resulting from the fall of “Daylight” and the smell of“Fragrance of A Flower” trigger the blooming of warm smiles. The impact of “Strong Wind” and the“Infuriating” torture arising from irrational trials give rise to the toughness that leads to chill and calm. At last, the struggle between giving up and “Couldn’t Give Up” is exactly the training of the bravery of “Guts” to follow the heart and be free and at ease.

蔡尉成於「應物”變”形」展覽裡所塑造的孫悟空已然經過〈千年〉修練,故而得以與日常平凡親近,當面對各式人生境遇的起落興衰,他穿梭遨遊於內外的主客世界之中,瞭然接受並隨順因緣而跟著以七十二變將身形幻化,這裡的孫悟空是蔡尉成、是你、也是我,是我們對自己的期許,應物變形而猶能保有本然自在的永恆。

Tsai Wei Cheng’s Sun Wukong in exhibition “Transforming after Object” has gone through practices of a “Millennium,” and therefore is close to all the usual and the ordinary; when facing the ups and downs of life, it travels back and forth between the inner and outer world of subjects and objects, and willingly follows the course of life and transforms its form with 72 Transformation accordingly. Sun Wukong, in this case, can be Tsai Wei Cheng, you, and us; it can be what we expect ourselves to be, transforming after object while still keeping up our natural ease at all times.

大雋藝術2015年11月在台中成立 Rich Art Gallery (DA JUN ARTS LTD.) based in Taichung City is established in 2015.

大雋藝術2015年11月在台中成立 Rich Art Gallery (DA JUN ARTS LTD.) based in Taichung City is established in 2015.